The essay is a literary genre consisting of subjective exposition, written in prose, on a specific subject on which the personal perspective, whether in the humanistic, scientific, political, cultural, social, philosophical or artistic field, among others .
The essay does not keep any formal requirement but it is of freestyle of the author, since these are reflections and arguments focused on the expression of his opinion.
Like poetry, drama and narrative, the essay is part of the literary genre and within it, of didactic. The essay is an open explanation and interpretation on a certain subject, and its purpose is neither informative nor documentary. What it seeks is to persuade and convince with its reflexive argument without depleting the subject, influencing the reader’s way of thinking, what becomes its subjective and flexible character.
Although unlike other texts the essay does not have a rigid structure nor a rigorous organization of the content, since its style is free, its wording can denote scientific and simultaneously, literary characteristics. For this reason we affirm that there are two types of essays: the scientist and the literary, although some also mention the argumentative and expository essay.
The parts of the essay are the same classical parts of every text, however its wording does not have a formal and defined structure, since the main characteristic of this type of writing is the freedom that the writer has to organize its content.
In the introduction the author presents the topic to be developed, since it is the first part of the writing. The essayist gives his opinion in advance, a thesis that will try to prove later giving him solidity in the body of the essay.
In the case of scientific essay, the introduction is the exposition of a theory or hypothesis that offers the solution of a problem, and that will be defended through the development of the essay, providing as much documentary support or possible argumentative evidence.
In the argumentative essay a thesis is presented in the introduction, and it tries to defend that idea throughout the development of the essay with subjective opinions, that do not have to be scientific like in the previous one.
In the literary essay the introduction aims to put the reader in knowledge of the background of the work to be analyzed, placing it in the aspects that the essayist is interested in.
It is the longest part of the work, also called the body, where the essayist argues the exposition with information, data, comparisons, examples and other resources, leaving always his subjective opinion and personal style.
The scientific essay will present the tests to which the proposed thesis will be submitted, the comparisons with different theories, the bibliography used and all other elements that refute or prove the theory affirmed in the hypothesis.
In the argumentative essay defends the thesis based on one’s own opinion or other related ones that have validity to strengthen one’s own and to dismantle contrary opinions. When using the ideas of other people it is necessary to make clear their authorship and the source from which the reference has been extracted.
In the literary essay must incorporate textual quotations of the work that is analyzed in quotes, and preferably in italics if a computer is used. The parts to be analyzed should be sectioned and placed in context with brief references, since it is assumed that the reader knows the work analyzed by the essayist. In an orderly way the previously discussed points are discussed, using a more academic and formal language than in other types of essays.
In the conclusion, which is the last part of the essay, the author summarizes the main ideas, clearly reaffirming their position. The conclusion should be brief, as well as the introduction, in relation to the total extent of exposure.
For example, if the trial is expressed against abortion, the conclusion should briefly and quickly expose a clear review of the arguments against abortion.
In a scientific essay, the conclusion definitively refutes or reaffirms theories or hypotheses.
In writing an argumentative essay will summarize the main ideas that are intended to remain in the mind of the reader.
And in the literary essay, the conclusion will contain the final propositions of the analysis of the literary work.
Example of parts of the literary essay
Analysis of the short essay called “Mi razz”, written by the Cuban writer Jose Mart, where we can distinguish schematically the three parts of the essay.
Mart uses expressions that reflect his idea as “in Cuba there is a lot of greatness in blacks and whites,” or “man is more than white, more than mulatto, more than black” or “on the battlefields for Cuba, The airs the souls of whites and blacks “or” blacks, like whites, are divided by their characters into brave or timid, selfless or selfish “or” true men, black or white, will be treated with loyalty And tenderness “or” everything that divides men is a sin against humanity ”
In its first lines Jose Mart presents the theme of racism expressing that people are not superior to others by any race or color.
Throughout the development of the essay and throughout it, the Cuban author exposes the series of reasons why he rejects racism among his compatriots, claiming that both the “black man” and the “white man” do not really have any reason to Considered superior. Absurd superiority is the cause of enmity in a nation.
In his final part, Jose Mart recalls the heroic past of his country mentioning the Constitution. It points out that it does not postulate racial differences or distinctions, and emphasizes the principle of equality of all public rights.